PIRACITAM & ANIRACITAM
Aniracetam (1-(p-anisoyl)-2 pyrrolidinone;
ted to piracetam
but approximately 5-10 times as potent. Clinical studies in
have found it to have nootropic, anxiety-reducing, and
antidepressant properties. Studies in many animal species,
including monkeys, have found that aniracetam improves
m, cognition in both healthy adult animals and
by a variety of drugs and conditions, and it improves cognitive performance on some tests in which piracetam
is ineffective. Aniracetam functions through multiple mechanisms, including
positive modulation of AMPA receptors and increasing
acetylcholine, dopamine, and serotonin release in some areas of
the brain. Like piracetam, it is virtually non-toxic and associated
with very few side effects. It may cause insomnia in some i
ndividuals if taken close to bedtime. The effect after a single
dose of aniracetam peaks two hours after administration and
reaches baseline by the six hour point. Recommended dosage is
750-1500 mg daily, or lower if used in conjunction with other nootropics.
|By David Tolson|
Tribulus terrestris L., a member of the Zygophyllaceae family, is an annual herb
found in many areas of the world, including the US and Mexico, the Mediterranian region, and throughout Asia [1-4]. It is
also used in the folk medicine of many areas, such as India, China, and Turkey [1, 3]. Traditional uses include treatment
of sexual impotency, edema, abdominal distention, cardiovascular disease, kidney problems, and as a cough remedy [1, 3]. It
also has a reputation for having anabolic effects in some areas of the world . A large amount of potential active components
have been identified in tribulus, including steroidal saponins, lignanamides, alkaloids, and flavanoids . The amount of
these components can vary significantly based on the region of origin and the part of the plant used [1-2]. HPLC analysis
of different tribulus supplements revealed significant product-to-product variations in active ingredients , presumably
due to different regions of origin. The current research indicates that the steroidal saponins, particularly the dominant
saponin protodioscin, are responsible for the pharmacological activities of tribulus .
One of the most well-known
properties of tribulus is as an aphrodisiac, and as a putative testosterone elevator. Tribulus does increase sexual function
in animal models, and also reportedly improves libido in humans [6-7]. However, this is not necessarily indicative of a testosterone-increasing
effect – there are other possible reasons, such as the hypotensive effect of tribulus. There is limited information
regarding the effect tribulus ultimately has on testosterone levels. Translated Bulgarian research indicates that tribulus
increased testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in depressed men who were part of infertile couples . When protodioscin
is administered to castrated rats, it increases levels of testosterone, LH, DHEA, and DHT .
Two mechanisms have
been proposed for these increases – the first being that protodioscin directly increases LH, and the second being that
protodioscin increases levels of DHEA (which would ultimately mildly increase testosterone), perhaps by functioning as a precursor
[3, 9]. The neural effects of DHEA would also explain the aphrodisiac properties . However, it should be noted that if
the latter is the case, it would open the possibility that tribulus could ultimately lead to lower natural production of testosterone.
The ultimate effect of tribulus on testosterone levels in healthy humans, and consequently the effect on body composition
and exercise performance, remains to be seen. The present research is not promising – a trial in fifteen resistance
trained subjects found that tribulus did not improve body composition or strength over an eight week period . On the other
hand, this trial may not have even used a tribulus extract with adequate quantities of the active ingredients.
has also been clinical research on the use of tribulus in many medical conditions, usually with positive results. Biological
properties of tribulus extracts include diuretic properties, increased endothelial nitric oxide, direct smooth muscle relaxant
effects, and ACE inhibition [2, 11]. In vitro, tribulus also inhibits COX-2 . Cardiovascular conditions in which tribulus
has showed promise include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, coronary heart disease, and angina pectoris [2-3, 13]. In
both normal and diabetic mice, tribulus decreases serum glucose, perhaps by inhibiting gluconeogenesis [14-15]. Tribulus also
inhibits stone formation in experimental animals  and may have hepatoprotective properties . It may also be useful
in the treatment of vitiligo and bacterial infections . A number of other uses have been reported in traditional medical
In human trials using tribulus, it has been reported as safe and side effect free [2-3, 17]. One trial reported
no negative effect on the circulatory system or hepatic and renal function . Toxic effects have been observed in sheep
fed large amounts of tribulus , but are not likely to be applicable to normal supplemental use by humans. The LD50 of
tribulus-derived saponins in mice is 813 mg/kg, which is considerably higher than the commonly used dose (which rarely exceeds
more than a gram daily of saponins). In conclusion, tribulus is a relatively safe supplement that has aphrodisiac properties
and may be beneficial to the cardiovascular system. The effect on testosterone levels and related variables is not well established.
Phenibut (beta-phenyl- gamma-aminobutyric acid, also spelled fenibut, originally known as phenigamma) is a derivative
of the neurotransmitter GABA that crosses the blood-brain barrier . It was developed in Russia, and there it has been used
clinically since the 1960's for a range of purposes. Phenibut has both nootropic and anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing) properties,
and it is commonly compared to diazepam (Valium), baclofen, and piracetam, and it has similarities to and differences from
all of these substances.
Structurally, phenibut is similar to GABA, baclofen (p-Cl-phenibut), and beta-phenylethylamine
(PEA). GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The addition of the phenyl ring to GABA allows the compound
to more easily cross the blood-brain barrier, but also changes its activity profile [1-2]. Baclofen is a drug commonly used
in studies on GABA(B) receptors, and also clinically used to treat severe spasticity of cerebral origin . PEA is a naturally
occuring biogenic amine which is similar in structure to amphetamine, and like amphetamine, it is a stimulant that causes
the release of dopamine, and also promotes anxiety in high enough amounts.
Phenibut is a GABA receptor agonist and
also causes the release of GABA. Similar to baclofen, phenibut is an agonist at GABA(B) receptors, although it does have some
effect on GABA(A) receptors as well . It is possible that phenibut has a higher activity at central GABA(B) receptors than
peripheral ones . The role of the GABA(B) receptor is not well-established, although research in the last seven years has
significantly increased our understanding of this receptor. The most well-established role of GABA(B) receptors is inhibition
of the release of some neurotransmitters, and it may also serve as a negative feedback mechanism for GABA release [5-6].
of the structural similarity to PEA, phenibut may share some similarities and differences with it. When phenibut is administered
along with PEA, it antagonizes many of its effects, such as promotion of anxiety, promotion of seizures, and hyperthermia.
This has lead some to postulate that antagonism of PEA, rather than the GABA-mimetic activity, may be the important mechanism
of action for tha anxiolytic effect of phenibut [2, 7]. Phenibut also increases dopamine levels, and it has been postulated
that the structural similarity to PEA may play a role in this effect .
There is one report in the literature of
serotonergic effects of phenibut , but it does not look as though this has been followed up on.
Effects of phenibut
reduction. Phenibut is effective in many animal models of anxiety, although there is often dependence on study conditions.
In cats classified as "anxious" or "passive," phenibut reduced the fear response and increased aggression in a confrontational
situation, while it had no effect on aggressive cats. In normal cats, it lead to "positive emotional symptoms" . In mice,
phenibut increased social behavior . In rats, phenibut decreased some of the physiological responses to stress, including
the elevation of glucocorticoid levels . Phenibut has also been reported to decrease the fear response caused by electrical
stimulation and counteract the anxiogenic effect of the beta-carboline DMCM [2, 11]. Studies in rats examined the behavioral
properties of phenibut when it was administered locally into different parts of the brain, and it usually lead to a reduction
of anxiety in one or more models [12-16].
The results of animal models don't always pan out in the real world, however,
phenibut has a mechanism of action similar to that of many drugs which are known to reduce anxiety in humans. Animal studies
have compared the profile of phenibut to diazepam (Valium), which has pronounced anxiolytic properties, and piracetam, which
has weak anxiolytic properties. One study found phenibut had a tranquilizing effect similar to, but weaker than diazepam.
It also caused sedation and muscle relaxation (whereas piracetam did not), but again these effects were weaker than those
caused by diazepam .
In Russia, phenibut is commonly used to treat many neuroses, including post-traumic stress
disorder, stuttering, and insomnia. In double blind placebo-controlled studies, phenibut has reportedly been found to improve
intellectual function, improve physical strength, and reduce fatigue in neurotic and psychotic patients .
effects. Although phenibut does not meet all the requirements of a nootropic, it does have many similarities to piracetam.
In mice, phenibut causes significant improvement on the passive avoidance test . In this test of memory, animals are put
in an undesirable area (such as a lighting situation or height from the floor that that species dislikes), and then given
a negative stimulus (such as a shock) when they exit that area. Their ability to stay in the original area reflects how well
they remember that if they exit it, they will receive the undesirable stimulus. Phenibut also improves performance on the
swimming and rotarod tests and antagonizes the amnestic effect of chloramphenicol . It also has an antihypoxic effect,
a trait commonly seen among nootropics . However, in one study, phenibut was ineffective in the water maze and shuttle
box tests, while piracetam was . Other research supports the idea that phenibut has nootropic activity similar to that
of piracetam, but not as strong . Nootropic activity has also been reported in humans , but it was not specified whether
these were healthy adult humans, and they were probably elderly or psychiatric patients.
Another trait phenibut shares
with nootropics is neuroprotection. Multiple animal studies have indicated that phenibut administration increases resistance
to the detrimental effects of edema on mitochondria and energy production in the brain [20-22]. Phenibut also normalizes brain
energy metabolism changes caused by chronic stress . It was found to prevent changes in plasma electrolytes caused by
cerebral injury . Phenibut also protects dopaminergic neurons, and improved the condition of patients being treated with
antiparkinsonic drugs .
Other effects. Phenibut has anticonvulsant activity against some drugs or conditions, but
not others. It also potentiates the action of some other anticonvulsant drugs, and has been used to treat patients with epilepsy
. Phenibut has been reported to reduce motion sickness, and used in the treatment of alcohol and morphine withdrawal [2,
26]. One study indicated that phenibut increased resistance to heat stress and improved working capacity in humans .
studies indicate that phenibut has anti-arrhythmic properties in humans [28-29]. It also has other cardioprotective properties
[30-31]. Finally, phenibut showed promise in experimental models of gastric lesions [32-33].
Side effects and suggested
Phenibut has low acute toxicity. Reported LD50s (dose required to kill 50% of laboratory animals) are 900 mg/kg
i.p. in mice, 700 mg/kg i.p. in rats, and 1000 mg/kg in rats (method of administration not given) [2, 34]. Chronic administration
of 50 mg/kg did not have teratogenic effects in rats . In clinical studies, no signs of toxicity have been reported, and
side effects are few. Some report drowsiness, but this effect is not nearly as likely or severe as with benzodiazepines .
should be aware of the potential for drug interactions when taking phenibut. In many cases, it will decrease the threshold
dose and potentiate certain actions of a drug. It amplifies some of the effects of anesthetics (ether, chloral hydrate, and
barbiturates), diazepam, alcohol, and morphine [2, 35-36]; it would also presumably have an interaction with related drugs,
such as other opiates and GHB. In contrast, taking phenibut with some other drugs, such as stimulants, will more than likely
just blunt their effect.
In humans, the plasma half-life after a 250 mg oral dose of phenibut is 5.3 hours, and most
of the administered drug is excreted unchanged . Reported dosages used in clinical studies range from 250 to 1500 mg daily,
usually divided among three doses [2, 37]. Feedback indicates that the ideal dose may be in the higher end of this range.
develops to many of the effects of phenibut, although it is reported that it does not develop to the nootropic effect. The
first signs of tolerance may be seen within as little as five days. For this reason, it is commonly used for one to two week
periods, or dosage is increased by 25-30% after two weeks . This makes phenibut ideal for short periods of stress or anxiety,
but not ideal for chronic use. It is possible that taking only one dose daily may partially reduce the development of tolerance
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How does one use Phenibut / Gabatropin™?
Gabatropin™ can be used two ways.
As an adaptogen/anti-catabolic it can be taken in a dose of two capsules a day (one capsule twice a day). At this dose it
can be taken for cycles of 2 to 6 weeks.
Another way to take Gabatropin™ is to consume a larger dose (4-8 capsules)
all at once. This purpose would be to combat acute stress and nervousness, or to maximize mental acuity and clarity for a
specific task. Taken this way, Gabatropin™ should not be taken more than two days in a row, nor more than 3 times a
What else does Gabatropin™contain?
Gabatropin™ also contains the herb rhodiola rosea,
standardized for 4% rosavins. Rhodiola has been used in Russia for decades and has documented CNS stimulating, mood elevating,
work performance enhancing, sleep improving, and fatigue fighting properties.
Why would one use Gabatropin™?
are many reasons why one would use Gabatropin™. If a person is under stress and suffers from anxiety related problems
they may find Gabatropin™ very useful. If one needs to perform a stressful task such as study for / take an exam or
give a public presentation, Gabatropin™ can serve as a remarkable aid. Additionally, if one feels that they are overworked
/ overtrained and cannot break the catabolic cycle, Gabatropin™ can renew their central nervous system function and
bring them back into a state of psychological well being and physical anabolism.
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